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CONTENTS

(and some excerpts)


1

Where does Polysorbate 60 Come From, Daddy?  (click here for excerpt)


2

Wheat Flour


3

Bleach


4

Enrichment Blend: Ferrous Sulfate and B Vitamins–Niacin, Thiamine Mononitrate (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Folic Acid


5

Sugar


6

Corn Sweeteners


7

Corn Syrup, Dextrose, Glucose, and High Fructose Corn Syrup


8

Corn Thickeners: Cornstarch, Modified Cornstarch, Corn Dextrins, Corn Flour


9

Water


10

Soy: Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable and/or Animal Shortening, Soy Lecithin, and Soy Protein Isolate


11

Eggs


12

Cellulose Gum


13

Whey


14

Leavenings


15

Baking Soda

(click here for excerpt)


16

Phosphates  (Sodium acid pyrophosphate and monocalcium phosphate)


17

Salt


18

Mono and Diglycerides


19

Polysorbate 60


20

Natural and Artificial Flavors


21

Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate


22

Sodium and Calcium Caseinate


23

Calcium Sulfate


24

Sorbic Acid


25

Color (FD & C Yellow 5, Red 40)


26

Consider the Twinkie

(click here for excerpt)


* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


INDEX

Acacia gum, 123

Acetaldehyde, 36

Acetic acid, 154, 210, 241

Acetone, 41, 94

Acetylene, 35–36, 210

Acid hydrolysis, 1, 59, 663

Adhesives, 67, 96, 97, 172, 227,

229, 235

Ag Processing Inc., 90, 92, 103

Ahmann, Steve, 158

Alkali Act, 148

Alkali chemical lye, 22

All in the Family (television

show), 5

Allied Custom Gypsum, 232

Alonso, Elias, 35

Alpha amylase, 61, 63

Alto Dairy Cooperative, 129

American Cookery(Simmons), 135

American Ingredients, 41,

181–185, 217, 221–223

American Sugar Refining Inc.,

51

Amines, 30, 36

Amino acids, 41, 59, 65, 106, 154, 227

Amish farms, 14

Ammonia, 30, 35, 36, 103

Ammonium carbonate, 37

Ammonium nitrate, 37

Amylacetate, 260

Anaheim, California, 206

Anderson, Greg, 88, 89

Anderson, Richard, 70

Anemia, 40

Aniline, 250, 251

Animal feed, 57, 59, 81, 88, 109111, 258

Annatto, 253–255

Anthocyanins, 254

Antibiotics, 59, 65

Apopka, Florida, 200

Archer Daniels Midland (ADM),

16, 55, 56, 80, 90, 94, 119

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge,

175

Argo, 76

Arm & Hammer Baking Soda,

143, 149

Arrowroot starch, 59

Arsenic, 157

Artificial butter, 210–213

Artificial colors (seeFood

coloring)

Artificial vanilla, 33, 197, 202,

205–210, 212, 213, 250

Ashbya gossypiifungus, 38

Aspartame, 40

Aspirin, 207, 241

Astraukas, Dave, 193

Atlas Powder Company,

188–189, 194

B vitamins, 31, 32, 36

Bacillus subtilis, 38

Backward integration, 36

Bakelite, 207

Baking powder, 9, 75, 76, 84,

133, 134, 137–139, 153,

154, 162, 164, 166, 167,

259

Baking process, 46–47, 84

Baking soda, 133, 134, 136,

137, 139, 141–152, 153, 163,

259

Banana, 201

BASF, 31, 37, 211

Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 205,

207

Beauharnois, Canada, 22

Beaumont, Texas, 22

Bebee, Tim, 113

Beef fat, 91, 92, 100, 101n, 197

Beer, 64, 66, 134, 219–221, 235

Belcher, Maury, 92

Bell, Don, 117

Ben & Jerry’s ice cream, 107

Benzene, 206–208, 249–250

Beriberi, 29, 30, 37

Beta-carotene, 255

Better’n Eggs, 216

Betty Crocker Whipped Vanilla

Frosting, 197

Biotechnology, 30

Birth defects, 30, 40

Blair, Nebraska, 57, 58, 74,

217–218

Bleach

flour, 9, 20, 21–28

household, 21, 24

Blood sugar, 60, 66

Borden, 227

Borden, Gail, Jr., 227

Boutté, Troy, 181, 184, 222, 223

Boyle, Jimmy, 13–14, 16

Brand, Henning, 156–157

Bread, 8, 15, 66, 73, 95, 134, 135,

216, 234

Breyers Carb Smart Ice Cream

Bars, 228

Brillat-Savarin, Jean Anthelme,

262

Brine, 25

British gums, 80

Brooklyn, New York, 52

Brown rice, 30, 37

Browning, 47–48, 64, 65–68, 106,

126

Bruno, Don, 41, 42

Butane, 211

Butter, 99, 100, 102, 126, 179, 189,

197, 200, 201, 210, 211, 248

artificial, 210–213

Butyric acid, 41, 212

Cadwell, Mike, 206–207

Calcium, 126, 133, 160, 165

Calcium carbonate, 232

Calcium caseinate, 85, 225–229

Calcium fluorapatite, 156

Calcium hydroxide (seeLime)

Calcium lactate, 219–220

Calcium lime, 161

Calcium oxide, 162, 167

Calcium sorbate, 241

Calcium sulfate, 9, 10, 84, 85,

138, 160–161, 220, 229,

231–238, 263

Candida yeasts, 38

Candies, 66, 76, 193

Candles, 98, 217n

Cane molasses, 41

Cane sugar industry, 45n

Canola oil, 38, 91–92, 99, 181,

182, 197

Caramel, 254

Carbohydrates, 38, 60

Carbolic acid, 207

Carbon, 37

Carbon atoms, 100

Carbon dioxide, 46, 53, 147, 151,

242

Carbon monoxide, 6, 34, 212,

240, 241

Carbonated beverages, 66

Cardboard, 73, 79

Cargill, 16, 57–59, 61, 67–68, 70,

72, 74, 217–218

Carmine, 254

Carpenter, David, 156

Casein, 225, 226

Caseinates, 10, 225–229

Catechol, 202, 207

Caustic soda (see Sodium

hydroxide)

Celanese, 243

Cellulose, 260

Cellulose gum, 9, 85, 115–123,

189, 259, 262–263

Center for Science in the Public

Interest (CSPI), 242

Cheese, 123, 125, 127, 129, 131,

171, 179, 225, 253

Cheetos, 218

Chemical industry, 7–8, 26,

32–33

Chemical Weapons Convention,

23

Chewing gum, 95, 128, 191

Chicago, Illinois, 139, 161,

164–165

Chickens, 38, 108–110

Chlor/alkali industry, 21–22,

172, 217, 261

Chlorine, 9, 21–28, 78, 172, 173,

210, 251, 258

Chlorine gas, 23–24, 26, 28

Chocolate, 95, 171

Cholesterol, 100

Church, Austin, 148–149

Church, James, 149

Citric acid, 59, 65, 154, 260

Citrus extract, 30

Citrus fruits, 40

Clabber Girl, 138, 139

Clinton, Iowa, 55

Clinton Corn Processing

Company, 56

Clove oil, 206

Coal tar, 37, 206, 250

Coca-Cola, 8, 69, 71, 154

Cochineal, 254

Coconut oil, 182, 197

Cod liver oil, 38

Coffee-mate, 228

Coke, 157, 250

Cold Stone Creamery, 180

Colonization, 50

Coloring (seeFood coloring)

Columbus, Christopher, 50

Con-Agra, 16

Coniferin, 205

Continental Bakeries, 7

Corn, 9, 56–58, 70, 74–76, 88–90,

109, 190, 223, 258

Corn: Part of a Healthy Diet (Corn

Refiners Association), 68

Corn chips, 81

Corn flour, 25, 73, 80–81, 85

Corn oil, 181, 242

Corn Refiners Association, 68

Corn sweetener industry, 45n

Corn sweeteners, 54, 55–63

Corn syrup, 45, 46, 58–65, 68, 80,

112, 121, 129, 191, 194, 209,

218, 219, 260

Cornflakes, 81

Cornmeal, 36, 81

Cornstarch, 41, 59, 60, 62, 63, 72,

73–81, 85, 138, 235

Corriher, Shirley O., 94

Corzine, Leon, 56

Cosettes, 53

Cosmetics, 67, 75, 96, 122, 128,

172, 182, 191–193, 197, 209,

217

Cotton, 115, 116, 118, 119, 123

Cottonseed oil, 91, 99, 181, 182

Council Bluffs, Iowa, 90

Crabtree & Evelyn, 192

Cream, 102, 121, 126, 127, 180, 189

Crisco, 90, 97, 99–101, 180–181

Crotanaldehyde, 240, 241

Crown Technology, 34

Crude oil, 32

Cumene, 207

Cunningham, Mary Lou, 191

Daicel Chemical Industries, 240

Dairy Fresh Non-Dairy Creamer,

99

Davis, Tim, 142, 145, 146

Davy, Sir Humphry, 22

Decatur, Illinois, 90

Deep tank technology, 33–34

Delmarva area, 13–14

Deltadodecalactone, 212

Denk, Joel, 130, 131

Denture adhesives, 122

Detergents, 62, 164

Devil Cremes, 6

Dewar, Charles, 7

Dextrin, 64, 75, 77, 79

Dextrose, 61, 62, 64, 65–67, 71,

178, 191, 218, 219, 260

Diabetes, 68–70

Diacetyl, 202, 210–212

Diesel fuel, 81, 97, 183

Diglycerides, 3, 85, 95, 99,

179–185, 188, 190, 193, 221

Diketene, 240, 241

DingDongs, 6

Directional drilling, 175

DNA, 154

Domino Sugar, 51, 52

Domino Superfine, 47

Donut Pyro, 166

Doonesburycomic strip, 4–5

Doritos, 127

Doritos Nacho Cheese, 66

Dove Beautifully Clean

Shampoo, 193

Dow Chemical, 116, 183, 195, 209

Dried eggs, 112–114

Dried milk, 126, 226, 227

Dry milling, 80–81

DSM, 31

Duncan Hines Creamy

Homestyle Cream Cheese

Frosting, 190

DuPont, 32, 103, 188

Durum, 15

Dwight, John, 148–149

Dye industry, 250

Eagle Brand Sweetened

Condensed Milk, 48

Easy Cheese, 127

Edamame, 89

Edy’s Grand Light Rich &

Creamy Vanilla ice cream,

180

Egg whites, 106, 107, 111, 228

Egg yolks, 94, 95, 106, 107, 111,

180, 189, 216, 223

Eggs, 8, 10, 104, 105–114, 126,

134, 226, 258

Eijkman, Christiaan, 37

Electricity, 22, 24, 25

Elizabeth, New Jersey, 105, 107,

112, 113

Elmer’s glue, 227

Enoch Valley Mine, Idaho,

155–156

Enriched flour, 8, 29–44

Entenmann’s cakes, 107

Enzymes, 60–65, 129, 244

Equistar, 195, 209

Eskimo Pie Ice Cream Bars, 197

Ethane, 194, 195, 240

Ethanol, 38, 65, 81

Ethyl acetate, 202

Ethyl alcohol, 65

Ethyl cellulose, 116

Ethyl maltol, 209

Ethyl vanillin, 202

Ethylene, 35–36, 195, 251, 258

Ethylene glycol, 209

Ethylene oxide, 194–196, 240

Evans, Oliver, 136

Everglades Agricultural Area, 49

Explosives, 48, 81, 96, 154,

188–189, 195

ExxonMobil, 151, 195

Famous Amos cookies, 107

Faraday, Michael, 24

Farmers, 13–14, 56

Fermentation, 30, 32, 39, 40,

58–59, 64, 66, 203, 219, 244

Ferric oxide, 34

Ferrous sulfate, 33–34, 42, 43

Fertilizers, 154, 156

Fiberglass, 163

Firmenich Inc., 204, 206

Fish, 38

Flavor Sciences Inc., 199, 200

Flavors, 199–213

Fleur de sel, 173

Florida Crystals Corporation, 51

Flour, 10, 45, 85, 136, 172, 259

    bleached, 9, 20, 21–28

    enriched, 8, 29–44

    wheat, 13–20

FMC Corporation, 139, 142–147,

150–152, 163–164, 217

Folate, 40–41

Folic acid, 30, 40–43

Food and Drug Administration

(FDA), 29, 40, 66, 172, 205,

241, 252–253, 255

Food coloring, 10, 25, 171, 183,

245, 247–256, 260

Forbesmagazine, 57

Formaldehyde, 206, 207

Fractionation units, 71

Franklin, Benjamin, 233

Freeport, Texas, 183

Freihofer’s 100% Whole Wheat

Bread, 261

Frozen eggs, 112, 113

Fructose, 69–71, 260

Fudgsicles, 127

Funk, Casimir, 30

Furfural, 209

Geismar, Louisiana, 160

Gelatinization, 47

Generally recognized as safe

(GRAS), 172, 241

Genetic engineering, 30, 258

Genetically modified (GM)

seeds, 56n, 260

Geneva Convention, 24

Gill, John, 108

Glass, 142, 143, 147, 163

Glop, 94

Glucose, 38, 60, 62, 64–67, 69

Glucose amylase, 62

Glucose isomerase, 62, 71

Glue, 79–80

Glutamate, 65

Glutamic acid, 41

Gluten, 15, 16, 27, 59, 85, 102

Glycerin, 182–183, 188, 189, 193,

209, 252

Glycerol, 183

Glyoxylic acid, 208

Gobley, Maurice, 94

Good Humor ice cream bars, 127

Grand Saline, Texas, 174

Grandview, Missouri, 181, 183,

217, 221

Great Depression, 6–7

Green River, Wyoming, 139, 142,

147, 163–164, 217

Grits, 81

Grove, Dennis, 176

Guaiacol, 207–209

Guaifenesin, 207

Guangji Pharmaceutical

Company, 39

Guar gum, 123

Gum arabic, 123

Gypsum (seeCalcium sulfate)

Harvard University, 136–137

Hay, 16

Heliotropine, 202, 209

Hellmann’s mayonnaise, 107

Helms, Allen, 118

Hemicellulose, 118, 260

Herbicides, 87, 160

Hercules Incorporated, 120, 189

Hexane, 91–93

High fructose corn syrup

(HFCS), 1, 2, 4, 45, 56, 58,

62, 65, 67–72, 263

Hines, Steve, 53

Hippocrates, 131

Ho Hos, 6

Hoffman, A. W., 242

Hoffman-La Roche, 31

Hollingshead, Dave, 236

Homegrown food, 2

Homogenization, 112

Honey, 64

Horsford, Eben Norton, 137–138

Hostess, 5, 7, 34, 66, 83, 106,

120–121, 127, 201

Household bleach, 21, 24

Hunt’s Snack Pack Vanilla

Pudding, 216

Hydrochloric acid (HC1), 25n,

27, 35, 38, 60, 63, 78, 79, 103,

148, 164, 210, 211, 229

Hydrogen, 25, 34, 193, 212, 250

Hydrogen atoms, 100

Hydrogen oxide, 260

Hydrogen peroxide, 37

Hydrogenation, 97–101

I Can’t Believe It’s Not Butter, 180

Ice cream, 8, 64, 66, 95, 107, 116,

122, 127, 180, 197, 210, 228,

248

IG Farben, 116

Indianapolis, Indiana, 7, 75, 200

Industrial espionage, 58

Infant formula, 104, 127

Innophos, 139, 160, 161, 164–168

Insulin, 70

International Flavors and

Fragrances (IFF), 201

International Food Information

Council (IFIC), 69

Iodine, 178

Iron, 9, 32, 34

Iron deficiency anemia, 29

Iron ore, 33

Iron salt, 34

Iron sulfate, 34

Isomerization, 71

Jams, 66, 122, 154

Jean Naté Hydrating Body

Lotion, 197

Jefferson, Thomas, 204

Jell-O Pudding Snacks, 216

Jellies, 66, 122, 154

Johnson, Eric D., 58, 61, 72

Karo Light corn syrup, 63

Ken’s Steak House Creamy

Italian Dressing, 190

Ketchup, 41

Ketene, 241

Kiley, Joyce, 199–201

Kingsford, Thomas, 75

Kingsford’s Starch, 75–76

Kirchoff, G. S. C., 59–60

KLK (Kuala Lumpur Kepong

Berhad), 192

Knorr Instant Hollandaise Sauce

Mix, 79

Kosher food, 96, 101n, 182, 183,

237

Kraft

American cheese, 127

Calumet Double-Acting

Baking Powder, 235

Cheez Whiz, 127

Cool Whip, 102, 190

Free French Style Fat-Free

Dressing, 65

Jet-Puffed Marshmallows, 78

Sure-Jell Premium Fruit Pectin

for Homemade Jams &

Jellies, 66

Kreme Filled Krimpets, 6

Krishock, Dave, 79

Kunz, Gray, 3, 179

Lactic acid, 33, 51, 65, 129,

218–222, 244, 251

Lactones, 212

Lactose, 126, 127, 129, 130

Lafayette, Indiana, 7

Lake Charles, Louisiana, 22

Lard, 97n, 99, 197

Lauric acid, 197

Laxatives, 122

Leavenings, 46, 47, 106, 132,

133–139

Leblanc, Nicolas, 148

Lecithin, 85, 88, 89, 91, 93–97,

103, 180, 190

Lemon juice, 136

Lespinasse restaurant, 3

Lignin, 118, 206

Lime, 51, 53, 63, 103, 133, 161, 162,

164, 172, 219, 229, 233, 258

Limestone, 133, 153, 161, 167,

172, 232

Linolenic soybeans, 101

Liquid nitrogen, 221

Liquid petroleum gas, 35

Liquid starch, 59, 63, 74

Liquid sugar, 47, 54

Lister, Sir Joseph, 207

Little Debbie, 5, 150

Golden Cremes, 6

Liver, 30, 38, 40

Lonza Ltd., 35

Louis XVI, King of France, 148

Low-fat foods, 78–79

Lye, 78, 80, 103, 120, 164, 172,

210, 217, 229

Lysine, 106, 109

Magnesium sulfate, 250

Maillard reactions, 65, 68, 106

Malic acid, 260

Maltodextrin, 64

Maltol, 202

Mannitol, 189

Margarine, 94, 180, 192

Marggraf, Andreas, 53

Marion, Arkansas, 118

Marmite, 40

Marshmallow Fluff, 64

McCormick and Company, 200,

201, 204

Au Jus Gravy Mix, 122

McDonald, Nancy, 200, 201

McElvaney, Kevin, 52, 54

Meth production, 159

Methane, 5, 240

Methanol, 38, 240–241

Methyl esters, 182–183, 207

Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), 211

Michael Foods, 105, 113

Milk, 38, 123, 126–132, 167, 179,

218–219, 223, 225–227, 229,

258

Millet seeds, 38

Mississippi Lime Company, 161,

219

M&M Consulting and

Laboratory, 200

Modified cornstarch, 75, 78–79

Moisture control, 10, 48, 49, 67,

77, 78, 81

Molasses, 51, 52, 54, 94

Monocalcium phosphate (MCP),

134, 137, 139, 153, 161,

165–167, 219

Monoglycerides, 3, 85, 95, 99,

179–185, 188, 190, 193, 221

Monosodium glutamate (MSG),

41, 65

Monsanto, 56n, 155, 157–160

Roundup, 160

Roundup Ready seeds, 87

Morder, Dan, 173

Morton, 169–171, 173–178

Mountain ash tree (Sorbus

aucuparia), 242–243

Mountain Fuel Supply, 142

Mrs. Freshley’s Creme Cakes, 45

Myths surrounding Twinkies, 4,

6, 47

Nantong Acetic Acid Chemical

Company, 240

Naphtha, 35, 251

Naphthalene, 251

Napoleon, 60, 72

Nashville, Tennessee, 160

National Starch, 74, 75

Natural gas, 78, 202–203, 206,

209, 240

Naval jelly, 154

Neutrogena

Norwegian Formula Hand

Cream, 193

Oil-Free Acne Wash, 197

New Castle, Delaware, 188, 191,

194

New Coke, 204

Newman Grove, Nebraska, 88

Niacin, 35–36, 43

Niagara Falls, New York, 21, 22

Nielsen, Matt, 204, 205

Nielsen-Massey Vanillas, 204

Night-blindness, 30

Nitric acid, 36, 37, 250, 251

Nitrobenzene, 250

Nitrogen, 20, 35–36, 172, 211,

220

Nitroglycerin, 182, 188

Niutang Chemical Inc., 40

Nutraceuticals, 127

Nutrament energy and fitness

drink, 228

Nutrinova (Hoechst AG), 240,

242, 243

Nutrition bars, 127

Nutrition Facts labels, 101

Obesity, 68–70

Occidental Petroleum

Corporation, 22

Ocean Spray Ruby Red

Grapefruit Juice, 248

Oil palms, 190, 192

Olay Moisturinse Shower Body

Lotion, 197

Oleic acid, 197

Olive oil, 180, 182, 197, 242

Olivio, 180

Olsen, Bill, 41, 42

Oreos, 261

Oscar Mayer Turkey Bologna, 76

Oswego, New York, 75

Oxidation, 26, 37

OxyChem, 22, 23

Oxygen, 35, 166, 172, 195, 212,

221, 251

Paint, 96, 97, 209, 226

Palladium, 240

Palm kernel oil, 92, 182, 183, 192

Palm oil, 91, 92, 99, 181–183,

192–194

Palm trees, 216

PAM cooking spray, 96

Paper, 73, 117–119, 164, 172, 206

Papetti’s Hygrade Egg products,

105, 107, 108, 110–113

Papyrus, 75

Paraffin, 42, 98

Partially hydrogenated vegetable

shortening, 94, 96–100, 102,

258

Pasteur, Louis, 138

Pasteurization, 112

Peanut butter, 95, 102, 180

Pearlash, 135, 136, 147

Pebble quicklime, 162

Pectin, 66, 122, 260

Pellagra, 29, 36

Penicillin, 59, 65

Peoria, Illinois, 80

Periodic table, 24

Perkin, Sir William H., 250

Pesticides, 78

Peterson, J. Scott, 34

Petroleum, 9, 33, 35, 40, 78, 172,

183, 190, 206, 207, 209, 211,

240, 249, 258

Pharmaceuticals, 66, 67, 78, 164,

191, 207, 209, 235

Phenol, 202, 207

Phosphates, 9, 133, 153–168, 172,

232

Phosphoric acid, 8–9, 33, 78, 137,

153–155, 158, 160, 164–166,

258

Phosphorus, 133, 153–159, 220

Phosphorus oxychloride, 78

Physiology of Taste, The(BrillatSavarin), 262

Pickle liquor, 33

Pickling process, 33

Pine Bluff, Arkansas, 119

Pine needle extract, 30

Pine trees, 117

Pizza, 15, 16, 47, 73

Planters Cotton Oil Mill, 119

Plaque, 100

Plaster, 9, 160, 231, 233–234, 236,

237

Plastic, 65, 96, 128, 172, 194, 195,

207, 217n, 226

Platinum, 240

Pockle (phosphorus, oxygen,

chloride [P-O-C]), 78

Point of origin, 2

Pollution, 31, 148, 157–158

Polyethylene, 35

Polysorbate 20, 196–197

Polysorbate 60, 1, 3, 4, 9, 65, 85,

95, 99, 121, 180, 185,

187–197, 216, 240, 260, 262

Polysorbate 80, 196–197

Polyurethane foam, 48

Potassium bicarbonate, 135

Potassium carbonate, 147

Potassium hydroxide, 22, 241

Potassium iodide, 177

Potassium sorbate, 241

Potatoes, 74

Pound cakes, 27

PPG Industries, 22, 23

Pregelatinized starch, 77

Preservatives, 48, 170, 171,

239–245

Procter & Gamble, 99, 182

Propylene gas, 183, 207, 210

Propylene glycol, 209–210, 212,

252

Propylene oxide, 78, 210

Protein, 10, 15, 16, 26, 27, 47, 103,

106, 126, 127, 129

Pteroic acid, 41

Pteroyl-L-glutamic acid, 41

Purac, 218, 219

PVC (polyvinylchloride), 26

Questar, 142

Quicklime, 162

Quincy, Massachusetts, 192–193,

217

Raw food, 2

Raw sugar, 51, 52

Red No. 40, 3, 9, 85, 247–249,

251–253, 255, 256

Reduced iron, 34–35

Refined sugar, 52–54

Refractometer, 72

Rennet, 129, 229

Rhodia, 32, 201, 205

Riboflavin, 38–39, 42, 43

Rice, 39, 74

Riha, Bill, 242

Rillieux, Norbert, 51

Ring dryer, 75

Ronzoni pasta, 107

Rose hips, 3

Rumford Baking Powder, 138,

139

Rust, 34

Sabatier, Paul, 99

Sackett, Augustine, 234

St. Joseph, Missouri, 90

St. Louis, Missouri, 103

Ste. Genevieve, Missouri, 161

Sal soda, 147, 163

Salad dressings, 8, 64–65, 76, 78,

122, 127, 190

Salaratus, 148–149

Salt, 22, 24, 25, 51, 85, 112, 121,

168, 169–178, 210, 213, 219,

232, 258, 260, 261

Saltpeter, 48

Saturated fats, 100, 101, 181

Schaeffer’s Salt, 251

Scheele, Carl Wilhelm, 22, 182,

218–219, 251

Scurvy, 30

Sea salt, 148, 173

Sensient Colors Inc., 247–248,

255

Sensient Technologies, 200

Serving sizes, 69

Sesame seeds, 167

Shanghai Dyestuffs Research

Institute Company, Ltd.,

250, 251

Sheetrock, 232, 234

Shelf life, 7, 8, 10, 46, 48, 81, 95,

106–107, 120–121, 126, 134,

139, 180, 216, 219, 239

Shellac, 128

Shoemaker, Kevin, 218

Shortening, 90–93, 97n, 97–99,

102, 121, 193

Silica, 157, 163, 233

Silver Springs, New York, 169,

171, 173–176

Simmons, Amelia, 135

Sinopec, 249, 251

Slim-Fast Optima, 121, 228

Smith, Terry, 23, 24

Smuckers Reduced Fat Natural

Style Peanut Butter, 64

Soap, 142, 143, 147, 164, 182, 193,

197, 222

Soda ash, 142–143, 146–158,

162–165, 216–217, 223

Soda Springs, Idaho, 153,

155–157

Sodium, 24, 25, 41, 173, 216–217,

261

Sodium acid phosphate, 137

Sodium acid pyrophosphate

(SAPP), 134, 139, 143, 153,

164, 165, 216

Sodium aluminum sulfate, 134

Sodium bicarbonate (seeBaking

soda)

Sodium carbonate, 51, 142, 147,

150–153, 161–163, 166, 167,

216, 222

Sodium carboxymethyl-cellulose

(CMC), 120, 122

Sodium caseinate, 25, 85, 223,

225–229

Sodium chloride (NaC1), 24

Sodium ferrocyanide, 178

Sodium hydroxide, 22, 24, 25, 63,

80, 97, 172, 217, 229, 247

Sodium methoxide, 217

Sodium monochloroacetate, 120

Sodium nitrite, 247

Sodium sesquicarbonate, 142, 150

Sodium silicoaluminate, 177

Sodium stearate, 222

Sodium stearoyl lactylate, 8, 25,

65, 85, 99, 142, 164, 180, 190,

215–223

Soft drinks, 59, 68, 69, 71–72

Solae Company, 103

Solution mining, 169, 175–176

Solvay process, 149

Sorbic acid (trans trans 2,4hexadienoic acid), 10, 85,

107, 191, 239–245, 260

Sorbin, 243

Sorbit, 243

Sorbitan monostearate (SMS),

194, 196

Sorbitol, 65, 99, 191, 243

Sourdough, 135

South Beach Diet, 60

Southard, Oklahoma, 232,

236–237

Soy flour, 91, 93

Soy grits, 93

Soy protein isolate, 25, 85, 88, 89,

91, 93, 103–104

Soybean oil, 25, 38, 94, 98–99,

101, 180, 181, 182, 191, 197,

242

Soybeans, 8, 9, 39, 57, 85, 87–104,

109, 128, 167, 216, 258, 263

Spanish barilla, 147–148

Sparks, Maryland, 200

Spent bee grain, 38

SPI Polyols, 191

Spinach, 40

Sponge cake, 27, 47, 77, 106, 134,

171

Sports drinks, 8, 127

Starbucks

Frappuccino, 122

Low Fat Latte ice cream, 122

Starch, 40–41, 61, 74–81

Stearic acid, 22, 99, 182, 191–192,

217, 222

Steel pickling, 33

Steep water, 58

Straw, 16

Sucrose, 46, 49, 64, 68, 69, 71, 260

Sugar, 8, 10, 11, 27, 44, 45–54, 60,

64, 66, 68, 70, 121, 189, 260

Sugar beets, 49, 53, 60

Sugar Trust, 52

Sugarcane, 49–51, 53, 60

Sulfanilic acid, 250

Sulfate, 32

Sulfur, 32–33

Sulfur dioxide, 33, 58, 164

Sulfuric acid, 33–34, 60, 78, 137,

148, 160, 165, 172, 206, 209,

220, 258

Sunflower oil, 91, 101, 181

Surfactant, 96

Suzy Q’s, 6

Swiss Miss Hot Cocoa Mix, 122

Sydney, Iowa, 56

Table sugar (seeSucrose)

Tallow, 92, 192, 197

Tapioca starch, 41, 74

Tartaric acid, 136, 251

Tate & Lyle, 74

Terre Haute, Indiana, 138

Texas City, Texas, 207

Thiamine, 37, 43

Thiamine hydrochloride, 38

Thiamine mononitrate, 37–38, 42

Thinned starches, 79

Thomas, Glenda, 150, 152

Thompson, Benjamin, 137

Tianjin Zhongjin Pharmaceutical

Company, 37

Titanium dioxide, 254

Tobacco, 67

Tofu, 39, 93, 103, 234

Tollhouse Mint Brownie Bars,

127

Toothpaste, 116, 122, 128, 191

Tortillas, 80, 81

Trans fats, 6n, 91, 101, 102, 258

Trees, 115–118, 123, 242–243

Tribasic phosphate, 103

Triglycerides, 70, 179–180, 182,

192

Triscuits, 179

Trona, 133, 142–147, 149–150,

163–164

Trudeau, G. B., 5

Tryptophan, 36

Tums, 161

Turmeric, 254

Twin Rivers Technologies,

192–193, 217

“Twinkie defense,” 5

UK Patent Office, 26

Union Pacific Railroad, 163

Union Sugar Company, 60–61

Uniqema, 188, 191, 194

United States Gypsum (USG),

232, 236

United Sugar, 53

University of Iowa, 101

Unsaturated fats, 100

Uranium, 160

Urine, 156–157

Vanadium, 158

Vanadium oxide, 211

Vanilla, 200–205, 208

artificial, 33, 197, 202, 205–21212, 213, 250

Vanillin (4-hydroxy-3methoxybenzaldehyde),

202, 205–210, 250

Vaseline Intensive Care Dry SkiLotion, 217n

Vegetable oil, 25, 93, 94, 97, 181

Veggie Slices Cheese Alternative American Flavor Organic,228

Velveeta cheese sauces, 127

Vinegar, 136

Vitamin B1, 35–36

Vitamin B2, 38–39, 42, 43

Vitamin B3, 35–36, 43

Vitamin B9, 30, 40–41, 40–43

Vitamin C, 3, 65

Vitamins, 20, 28, 29–44, 64, 258

Vulcan Spice Mills, 149

Wakefield, Nebraska, 113

Walsh, Kelly, 248

Wanaque Reservoir, New Jersey,

83

Washing soda, 147, 163, 164

Water, 45, 47, 81, 83–85, 93, 121,

127, 210

Watt, James, 136

Waukegan, Illinois, 204

Waupun, Wisconsin, 128

Waxy maize or corn, 74

Wayne, New Jersey, 52, 83

Western Phosphate Field, 156

Wheat, 8, 13–20, 74, 258

Wheat starch, 75

Whey, 10, 51, 85, 125–132,

225–227, 229

Whey protein concentrate, 126,

127

White, Dan, 5

Wills, Lucy, 40

Wise

Cheez Doodles, 76

Sour Cream and Onion PotatoChips, 127

Wish-Bone Fat Free Chunky

Blue Cheese salad dressing,122

Wonder Bread, 7, 216, 235

World War I, 23, 60

World War II, 8, 60

Xanthan gum, 65, 123

Yeast, 38, 64, 66, 133–135, 211

Yellow #2 dent field corn, 74

Yellow No. 5, 85, 247, 249,

251–253, 255, 256

Yellow prussiate of soda, 178

Yogurt, 126, 129, 132





Contact Liz Keenan, publicist
212-366-2245
mailto:Elizabeth.Keenan@us.penguingroup.com?subject=Twinkie,%20Deconstructedmailto:Elizabeth.Keenan@us.penguingroup.com?subject=Twinkie,%20Deconstructedmailto:Elizabeth.Keenan@us.penguingroup.com?subject=Twinkie,%20Deconstructedmailto:elizabeth.keenan@us.penguingroup.com?subject=Twinkie,%20Deconstructedshapeimage_2_link_0shapeimage_2_link_1shapeimage_2_link_2